Spatiotemporal patterns of predator-prey interactions
The non-consumptive effects of predator-prey interactions take numerous forms and occur over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. These interactions can shape the space-use and activity patterns of species in a wildlife community and may ultimately dictate when and where consumptive interactions are likely to occur. My dissertation research is part of the larger Washington Predator-Prey Project, a collaborative study between the University of Washington and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, aimed at understanding the impacts of recolonizing wolves on deer, elk, and other species in Washington State. Under the umbrella of the WPPP, I’m using a combination of camera trap data, GPS collar data, and various hierarchical models to answer questions about occurrence, movement, and activity patterns among a community of ungulates, meso-predators, and large predators in eastern Washington, with a particular emphasis on how predator-prey interactions and anthropogenic activities influence these patterns. I am asking four broad research questions: 1) how does survey perspective (camera trap vs GPS collars) influence inferences gained about wildlife-habitat associations and space use, 2) how does predator presence and hunting behavior influence animal movement, 3) how do antipredator behaviors vary with predation risk at different temporal scales, and 4) how do two ubiquitous forms of anthropogenic activity (hunting and livestock grazing) influence wildlife activity and distributions?
I completed the fieldwork stage of my research in summer 2021 and am working with a dedicated group of UW undergraduate students to processing over 4 million images with the help of Microsoft's AI for Earth machine learning tools. Project collaborators and I are digging into the data and working on a number of analyses. Stay tuned for more project updates!
Effects of harvest on wolf populations in the Rocky Mountains
Public harvest is frequently used to manage wildlife populations and mitigate human-wildlife conflict. Because of their social structure, the response of wolf populations to harvest management can be complex and understanding that complexity can help wildlife managers evaluate the efficacy of management, meet management objectives, and inform future decisions. My thesis focused on understanding how pubic harvest affected the distribution of wolf packs in southwestern Alberta, where wolves are managed under a long-term harvest regime, and whether immigration into packs maintained population densities in southwestern Alberta and in central Idaho, where harvest management only recently began. Using hunter surveys, non-invasively sampled genetic data from scat, and occupancy models, I found that the number and distribution of packs in southwestern Alberta were stable during my study period, but observed frequent turnover of individuals in the study packs, suggesting that harvest affected within-pack dynamics more so than between-pack dynamics. Using a variety of genetic analyses and generalized linear models I also found that harvest reduced the density of pack-dwelling wolves in central Idaho but immigration did not change in response to harvest. The density of wolves and proportion of immigrants detected in southwestern Alberta were similarly low, suggesting that immigration does not always compensate for harvest mortality, as is often assumed.
Bassing, S.B., D.E. Ausband, M.S. Mitchell, M.K. Schwartz, J.J. Nowak, G. Hale, L.P. Waits. 2020. Immigration does not offset harvest mortality in groups of a cooperatively breeding carnivore. Animal Conservation. 23:750-761.
Bassing, S.B., D.E. Ausband, M.S. Mitchell, P. Lukacs, A. Keever, G. Hale, L Waits. 2019. Stable pack abundance and distribution in a harvested wolf population. Journal of Wildlife Management 83:577-590.